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TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 COOLING SYSTEM EFFECTS OF COOLING SYSTEM NEGLECT A neglected cooling system can lead to inefficient engine operation,  either  directly  or  indirectly.    Most  of  the  problems may   be   traced   to   overheating;   however,   an   engine   that   is running too cold can be just as troublesome. Overheating may lead to troubles such as the following: 1.  Burned valves. 2.  Pinging or knocking. 3.  Vapor lock. 4.  Poor lubrication-increased engine wear. 5.  Sticking valve and valve lifters. 6.  Short spark plug life. 7.  Engine hot spots. 8.  Need for higher octane fuel. Overcooling often results in the following: 1.  Excessive fuel consumption. 2.  Sludge formation in crankcase. 3.  Corrosive acids found in crankcase. COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE A.  COOLING SYSTEM INHIBITORS 1. Systems With Coolant Filters Properly  inhibited  coolant  will  keep  the  engine  free  of rust,  scale  deposits  and  corrosion.    New  vehicles  are delivered  with  IH  anti-freeze  and  coolant  and  may  be equipped with a coolant filter.  The coolant filter should be changed according to the intervals contained in the respective Operator's Manuals. 2. Systems Without Coolant Filters Vehicles   without   a   cooling   system   must   have   the coolant   inhibitors   replenished   by   adding   IH   cooling conditioner.      The   conditioner   should   be   added   as recommended in the respective Operator's Manuals. A   complete   drain,   flush   and   refill   with   water   and conditioner, or IH anti-freeze and coolant is recommended once a year.  This includes all vehicles irregardless of yearly mileage. If  the  cooling  system  has  been  permitted  to  become rusty   or   dirty,   use   IH   cooling   system   cleaner   and neutralizer carefully following cleaning recommendations on the container. 3. Coolant Testing for Inhibitor Strength Coolant should be checked for reserve alkalinity using test  strips  available  from  various  sources  at  each  oil change.     Indication     of     a     low     alkalinity     condition necessitates   a   need   to   add   IH   cooling   conditioner, change cooling filter or to drain contaminated coolant. B.  DRAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM When  the  cooling  system  of  a  vehicle  is  drained,  some coolant  is  likely  to  be  retained  in  the  pockets  of  the  cooling system.    This  is  especially  true  in  engines  equipped  with  oil coolers or heat exchangers having a tube bundle.  If only water with cooling conditioner is used and these engines are drained and     then     exposed     to     freezing     temperatures,     the     water conditioner will freeze and possibly rupture one or more of the tubes.    The  resulting  leak  will  be  difficult  to  locate  and  could eventually  damage  the  engine  by  mixing  the  cooling  with  the engine oil. To avoid damage, take one or the following precautions when draining for shipment or storage in freezing temperature: a. Fill  the  cooling  system  with  antifreeze  solution, operate   engine   until   the   thermostat   opens   or until    circulation    is    observed    in    the    radiator circuit, then drain. b. If  conditioned  water  is  used,  drain  the  engine, then blow out the residual solution in the cooler tubes  with  compressed  air  through  one  of  the drain cocks or plugs on the cooler. C.  CLEANING THE COOLING SYSTEM 1. Coolant shut-off cocks to heaters and other accessories     should     be     open     to     allow     complete circulation during cleaning, flushing and draining.  Run the  engine  with  the  radiator  covered  if  necessary  until temperature  is  up  to  operating  range  72-84  degs.    C (160-180 degs.  F).  Stop engine, remove radiator cap carefully (if so equipped) and drain system by opening drain cocks on radiator and crankcase. 2. Allow   engine   to   cool,   close   drain   cocks   and   pour cleaning compound into radiator according to directions.  Fill system with water. 3. Place a clean drain pan to catch over-flow and use to maintain level in radiator. CTS-2019P  Page 8 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF A MERICA

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