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TM 9-254 Section II.  STAKING, PEENING, AND SWAGING 3-3. General. Reshaping  (not  removal)  of  metal  is  done  by  staking,  peening,  or  swaging.    These  terms  are  defined  in  (1)  through  (3) below. (1) Staking is a method of securing parts by pushing surface metal together with punch and hammer. (2) Peening  is  the  stretching  of  surface  metal,  usually  with  a  ball  peen  hammer  or  with  a  hammer  and  a specially designed round-nose chisel. (3) Swaging is the moving of metal throughout its entire thickness where a definite shape is desired. 3-4. Staking. a. General.  Staking is a process usually employed to secure two parts together.  It is not to be confused with waterproofing of screwheads.  Threaded parts that draw up to a certain critical point are sometimes staked to maintain that position.  The advantage of staking is that it holds parts together in a final position. CAUTION Staking with a punch and hammer may be difficult for the inexperienced repairer.  A great deal of damage may be done to the material being staked, such as bent tubular parts, if the procedure is not followed with extreme skill and care. b. Staking Threaded Parts (fig. 3-4). A recommended procedure for staking threaded parts is as follows: NOTE This procedure does not apply to optical components. (1) Be sure that the desired adjustment of the nut (1) on shaft (2) is correct. (2) Place center punch (3) at right angle to the nut surface and close to the shaft (2) but not so close that punch will hit the shaft. (3) With a ball peen hammer, give the punch (3) a solid tap and then remove the punch. (4) Examine staking hole.  If metal has moved enough to pinch  threaded  parts  together,  move  on  to  next staking position. (5) If metal has not moved enough, move punch closer to the shaft (2).  You may need to tilt the punch (4) less than 90 degrees. (6) Stake  at  least  two  places  (5),  approximately  180  degrees  apart.    The  size  and  the  number  of  staking holes will depend on the type of metal and size of parts to be staked. 3-4

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