Alternating Current - Continued
For parallel circuits:
R2 + X2
For series circuits:
R2 + X2
Z is the total impedance in ohms.
R is the total resistance in ohms.
X is the total reactance in ohms.
Instantaneous Values of AC Voltage. As the AC voltage and current pass through the sine wave cycle
depicted in figure 7-8, there are several instantaneous values of interest, such as the peak, effective, and average values
of the sine wave.
Figure 7-8. Instantaneous Values of AC
The relationships between the instantaneous values shown are provided in table 7-3. Given any one of the four values,
the remaining three values can be calculated using the relationships from the table.
Table 7-3. Instantaneous Values of AC
Multiplying factor to get