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Induction Heat Soldering
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TM-9-254 Gearcase Transfer M548 M548A1 (
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Lapping,  Using  A  Surface  Plate
TM 9-254 4-20.  Abrasive Processes - Continued a. Forms of Abrasives.  Abrasive products are used in three basic forms: (1) Bonded, to form a solid shape tool such as disks, cylinders, rings or sticks. (2) Coated, on backings made of paper or cloth in the form of sheets, strips or belts. (3) Loose, held in some liquid or solid carrier, (for lapping and polishing) or propelled by centrifugal force such as air or water against the work surface (blast cleaning). b. Application for Abrasives.  Application for abrasives are multiple and varied. (1) Cleaning, of surfaces.  Coarse removal of excess material. (2) Shaping, such as tool sharpening. (3) Surface finish improvement, primarily as in lapping, honing, and polishing. 4-21.  Lapping. a. General.    Lapping  is  an  operation  for  removing  a  small  amount  of  metal  with  an  abrasive  compound  either  by hand  or  machine.    Lapping  produces  a  smooth,  but  not  necessarily  polished,  surface  that  is  not  usually  obtainable through  ordinary  machine  and  hand  operations  such  as  turning,  thread  cutting,  filing.    Lapping  must  be  performed, therefore,  to  properly  finish  such  bearing  surfaces  as  sleeves,  worm  gears,  and  eyepieces.    Machine  lapping  is  not normally within the field of work for the instrument repairperson as it is used chiefly in production work. b. Lapping  Compound.    The  abrasive  mixture  used  in  the  lapping  process  is  known  as  the  lapping  compound  and must   be   mixed   by   the   instrument   repairperson.      It   is   composed   of   artificial   abrasives   such   as   silicon   carbide, manufactured boron carbide, or manufactured aluminum oxide mixed with oil, grease, or water. c. Lapping Procedures.  In the lapping process, select a grade of compound that is best suited for the job.  Select a compound  which  will  resist  the  tendency  to  embed  itself  in  to  the  material  being  lapped.    The  following  list  will  be useful in making such a choice: Metal Compound (grade) Steel on steel Medium and/or fine Steel on brass Medium and/or fine Brass on brass Medium and/or fine Aluminum on aluminum Fine (1) Apply  the  compound  sparingly  to  the  parts  to  be  lapped,  then  work  the  parts  together  until  they  are perfectly  mated.    Frequent  inspection  should  be  performed  to  prevent  the  removal  of  excess  material, thus  causing  possible  spoilage.    After  lapping  has  been  accomplished,  and  before  each  inspection,  the parts  must  be  washed  off  thoroughly.    Cleaning  solvent  such  as  mineral  spirits  or  paint  thinner  may  be used.    The  washing-off  process  must  remove  the  lapping  compound;  otherwise  the  cutting  action  will continue as the parts are worked together in use. 4-50  Change 6

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