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BALL AND ROLLER BEARING MAINTENANCE
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GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL AND MECHANICAL TERMS
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 GENERAL INFORMATION STEEL AND ITS HEAT TREATMENT The   heat   treatment   of   steel   consists   of   annealing, hardening and tempering. Annealing Annealing consists of heating above the "critical range", then   cooling   slowly,   for   the   purpose   of   refining   the   grain, softening  the  steel  to  machinability  and  relieving  the  internal strains  set  up  in  the  steel  by  forging  and  hammering,  these strains sometimes amounting to several thousand pounds per square inch. Hardening Hardening  consists  of  heating  above  the  critical  range and   cooling   quickly,   as   by   quenching   in   oil   or   water,   the degree of hardness depending upon the carbon content of the steel and the severity of the quench. Tempering Water  quenching  is  more  severe  than  oil  quenching and is frequently followed by tempering or drawing to reduce the brittleness imparted by the severity of the quench. Casehardening or Carburizing Carburizing,  carbonizing  or  casehardening  are  names applied to the process wherein a piece of low-carbon steel is packed  in  a  carbonaceous  material  such  as  bone  or  leather, or a commercial carburizing material and heated for a number of hours, just above the "critical range" of the steel, or above its   point   of   decalescence,   thereby   causing   the   low-carbon steel to absorb carbon on the outer surface for a depth directly dependent upon the number of hours it is heated.  Under such conditions, a carbonized case is produced which is capable of responding to ordinary hardening or tempering operations. Brinell Test The  Brinell  test  is  commonly  made  with  a  hydraulic testing    machine    in    which    a    steel    ball    of    ten    millimeter diameter  is  pressed  into  the  test  piece  by  a  load  of  three thousand kilograms.  The diameter of the impression the ball produces   in   the   test   piece   is   then   measured   and   checked against  a  standard.    Thus  an  impression  four  millimeters  in diameter  indicates  softer  steel  than  a  diameter  of  three  and one half millimeters. The   Brinell   test   is   definitely   related   to   the   ultimate strength of the material. Scleroscope Test The   Shore   Scleroscope   test   is   made   with   a   small instrument which drops a diamond-tipped hammer approximately  ten  inches  through  a  small  glass  tube  upon  a smooth surface of the steel to be tested, and the height of the rebound of the hammer measured against a scale at the back of  the  glass  tube.    Hard  steel  is  taken  as  being  100  hard  on the Scleroscope and soft steel approximately 30 to 35 hard. Tensile Test A  test  bar  of  the  standard  S.A.E.    form  is  machined from the material to be tested, and is held in threaded grips in a vertical position in the testing machine.  The machine is set in motion and the test bar is slowly stretched until it is broken. The point at which the elongation ceases to be proportional to the load is designated as the elastic limit.  This is the highest point   at   which,   if   the   load   were   removed,   the   bar   would resume  its  original  length.  This  is  also  the  point  at  which,  if exceeded,  failure  of  the  part  commences.    The  weight  of  the load at this point is read on the weighing beam of the testing machine  and  converted  into  pounds  per  square  inch,  to  be checked against S.A. E.  specifications for that particular steel from which the test bar was made. CTS-2128-L  Page 6 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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