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ADENDUM NO.  1 FUEL SYSTEM VAPOR LOCK
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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ADDENDUM NO.  3 VACUUM SYSTEM HOSE LEAKAGE TEST
ENGINE DIVISION SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ADDENDUM NO.  2 COMPRESSION AND CYLINDER LEAKAGE TESTS Compression Test The    compression    test    is    performed    to    measure cylinder    compression    pressure.        The    absolute    value    of compression  pressure  is  significant  but  cylinder  to  cylinder variation  is  even  more  important.    Allowable  variation  from cylinder to cylinder is: Lowest  cylinder  pressure  must  not  be  less  than  75%  of the   highest   cylinder   pressure.   Greater   variation   from cylinder  to  cylinder  indicates  need  for  mechanical  repair which   should   be   carried   out   in   accordance   with   the appropriate    CTS*    ENGINE    section.    Perform    engine compression test as follows: 1.  Run engine until normal operating temperature is reached. 2.  Remove all spark plugs and install compression gauge in No.  1 cylinder. 3.      Remove   coil   secondary   wire   from   distributor   cap   and ground it to prevent arcing.  Block carburetor throttle open. 4.  Connect remote starter switch to starter solenoid or have an assistant available to crank engine. 5.  Crank the engine for at least 5 compression strokes or until compression  gauge  reaches  its  highest  value.    Note  the number  of  compression  strokes  required  to  reach  highest value.      Record   compression   pressure   and   number   of strokes. 6.  Repeat the test for each of the other cylinders. 7.    If  one  or  more  cylinders  produce  a  low  reading,  squirt about a tablespoon of engine oil into low reading cylinders. Repeat compression test on those cylinders. a.    If  compression  pressure  improves  significantly,  worn or broken piston rings are at fault.' b.  If compression pressure does not improve, valves are at    fault    or    if    two    adjacent    cylinders    have    low compression,  a  leaking  cylinder  head  gasket  may  be the cause. Cylinder Leakage Test (CLT) The   cylinder   leakage   test   is   supplemental   to   the compression test and can provide diagnostic information as to the  cause  for  loss  of  compression.    The  CLT  can  identify leakage  past  intake  or  exhaust  valves,  leaking  cylinder  head gasket, worn or broken piston rings, or other cause for loss of compression. Perform cylinder leakage test as follows. 1.  Run engine until normal operating temperature is reached. 2.  Remove spark plugs from engine. 3.  Remove air cleaner and block carburetor throttle open. 4.  Remove oil filler cap. 5.    Remove  radiator  cap.    If  coolant  is  low,  fill  to  prescribed level. 6.  Turn crankshaft until No.  1 cylinder is at top dead center on compression stroke. 7.          Connect     and     calibrate     cylinder     leakage     tester     in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. 8.  Record cylinder leakage (usually in percent) and determine source  of  leakage  by  listening  for  air  escaping  through carburetor, exhaust system, or crankcase (oil filler tube). Look for air bubbles in coolant (radiator top tank). 9.    Carefully  turn  crankshaft  in  normal  direction  of  rotation until  the  next  cylinder  in  firing  order  sequence  is  at  top dead  center.    Connect  CLT  to  that  cylinder  and  repeat test. 10.    Repeat  test  for  each  consecutive  cylinder  in  firing  order sequence. When  the  cause  for  loss  of  compression  has  been identified,  repair  engine  in  accordance  with  the  appropriate *See CTS or CGES CGES-215 - Page 46 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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