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Fig. 85  Removing Piston Pin
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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ENGINE DIVISION SERVICE MANUAL   TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ENGINE However,  when  reboring  the  cylinder  bore,  it  should be sized to within .003" of the desired size and then honed to provide  the  proper  finish  on  the  cylinder  wall  as  well  as  the correct running clearance for the piston selected. Piston  pins  should  be  inspected  and  measured  for wear.  If piston pins show signs of corrosion or etching or are not  within  specifications,  they  should  be  replaced  with  new pins.    See  "Specifications.'  Piston  assemblies  furnished  for service replacement are complete with piston pins accurately fitted. Connecting Rods The   connecting   rod   and   bearing   must   withstand extreme   forces   and   high   temperatures.      In   addition,   the connecting     rod     and     bearing     are     subject     to     changing temperature  cycles  in  a  variety  of  climates  and  under  widely varying operating conditions. The   connecting   rod   bearing   plays   a   major   role   in distributing the proper amount of oil to the piston pin bearing surfaces,   cylinder   walls,   piston   and   piston   rings.      This   is known as oil throw-off and the condition of the connecting rod bearing   determines   how   well   the   lubrication   operation   is performed. The     bearing-to-crankshaft     clearance     affects     the volume of oil throw-off. Where the bearing clearance is more than specified, an abnormal amount of oil is thrown onto the cylinder  walls  causing  increased  oil  consumption  and  low  oil pressure  due  to  oil  passing  through  the  bearing  surfaces  too quickly.  Where bearing clearances are less than the specified amount, the oil that passes through the bearing is insufficient to properly cool the bearing, resulting in short bearing life and improper  oil  throw-off  to  the  cylinder  walls,  piston  pins  and piston rings.  This condition contributes to scoring of pistons and cylinder walls. If the connecting rod bore is stretched or out-of-round beyond the specified diameter, the insert will be out-of-round and  will  not  be  held  securely  in  the  connecting  rod  since  the "crush" may be lost. Bearing failures can result from localized bearing  loads  or  from  low  oil  pressure.  The  bearing  insert locating   tangs   will   keep   the   inserts   from   turning   in   the connecting  rod  bore  under  normal  conditions  but  may  move and fail due to the foregoing reasons When  installing  new  connecting  rod  bore  inserts,  a very    thorough    inspection    of    the    connecting    rod    bore    is necessary. This inspection consists of the following: Fig. 88 1. Bore Size: To obtain the proper bearing insert crush, the  bore  must  be    I  of  a  specified  size,  Figure  88. See "Specifications." Fig. 89 2. Roundness:   The   bore   of   the   connecting   rod   when assembled    and    the    rod    bolts,    nuts    and    special hardened   washers   tightened   to   specified   torque   is round   and   should   not   exceed   .005"   out-of-round, Figure 89. 3. Surface   Finish:   The   connecting   rod   bore   must   be smooth, Figure 90. CGES-210  Page 32 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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