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Fig.  12  Sustained Preignition Damage
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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BOOSTER GAP PLUG
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ELECTRICAL has become worn away or the ground electrode has become so badly eroded at the sparking area that resetting of the gap is  either  difficult  or  impossible,  the  spark  plug  is  not  fit  for further efficient engine service--even if cleaned. Fig.  17  Condition of Electrodes CLEANING AND SETTING Remove spark plug gaskets if plugs are to be cleaned. Remove oily deposits from both firing end and outside surface  of  plug  using  a  commercial  cleaning  solvent  which dries  quickly.    Failure  to  remove  oil  from  spark  plugs  will result  in  cleaner  abrasive  packing  inside  the  firing  end  of spark plug if an abrasive type cleaner is used. Use the instructions provided with the liquid spark plug cleaner   and   tester   (SE-2190)   and   be   sure   the   plugs   are thoroughly dry before testing. If  an  abrasive  type  plug  cleaner  is  used,  be  sure  the spark plugs are free of abrasive material before testing. Pass   a   thin   point   file   between   center   and   ground electrodes to smooth up both surfaces. Reset  gap  by  moving  ground  side  electrode  only.    Do not touch center electrode, as insulator tip fracture may result. Bend ground electrode toward center electrode. Using a wire feeler gauge, gap plugs to specifications. A  very  slight  drag  should  be  felt  when  feeler  gauge  passes between electrodes. Use  the  instructions  provided  with  the  tester  to  check spark plugs. NOTE: Never   assume   you   are   simulating   cranking compression   when   using   the   tester.      Air pressure   in   a   bench   tester   has   no   direct relation     to     engine     compression     for     the following reasons: 1. There   are   no   temperature   effects   in   the   bench test.    Heated  electrodes  within  warm  cylinders  in  an engine  require  less  voltage  than  under  a  cold  bench test. 2. There is no fuel/air charge in the bench tester. 3. Since spark plug firing is dependent on engine timing, firing  of  the  spark  plugs  is  not  always  at  the  point  of maximum compress ion. 4. There  is  no  cylinder  turbulence  in  the  tester  pressure chamber. Because   of   these   variables,   the   bench   test,   while useful, cannot be measured by any specific psi readings. HEAT RANGE Spark  plug  heat  range  is  the  primary  factor  governing spark   plug   performance   under   various   service   conditions. The  term  "heat  range  simply  refers  to  the  classification  of spark plugs according to their ability to transfer heat from the firing end of the plug to the cooling system of the engine. The  rate  of  heat  transfer,  or  heat  range,  is  controlled basically by the distance between the inside gasket seat and the insulator tip. A   "cold"   type   plug,   Fig.      18,   has   a   relatively   short insulator nose and transfers heat very rapidly into the engine's cooling   system.      Such   a   plug   is   used   in   heavy-duty   or continuous high speed operation to avoid overheating. MT-3754 Fig.  18  Construction and Heat Flow of "Hot” and "Cold" Plugs The   "hot"   type   plug,   Fig.      18,   has   a   much   longer insulator  nose  and  transfers  heat  more  slowly  away  from  its firing  end.    Thus,  it  runs  hotter  and  burns  off  combustion deposits  which  tend  to  foul  the  plug  during  prolonged  idle  or low-speed operation. CTS-2016-J  Page 7 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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