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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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CLEANING AND SETTING
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ELECTRICAL Fig.  12  Sustained Preignition Damage Chipped Insulator The chipped insulator shown in Fig.  13 results from bending the   center   electrode   during   regapping   of   the   plug.      Under certain  conditions  severe  detonation  can  also  split  insulator firing ends.  Obviously, the plug must be replaced. Fig.  13  Chipped Insulator Mechanical Damage Mechanical damage to plug shown in Fig.  14 is caused by a foreign object in the combustion chamber.  Small objects can travel    from    one    cylinder    to    another    (because    of    valve overlap).    Be  sure  to  check  the  other  cylinders  to  prevent recurrence   of   damage.      When   working   on   an   engine,   be certain  the  carburetor  throat  and  spark  plug  holes  are  kept covered. Fig.  14  Results of Mechanical Damage Reversed Coil Polarity Reversed  coil  polarity  can  often  be  detected  by  "dishing"  of the   ground   electrode.      Note   in   Fig.      15   that   the   center electrode is usually not worn badly.  This source of misfiring and rough idle can be corrected by reversing the primary coil leads. Fig.  15  Reversed Coil Polarity Spark Plug Gap Tools Pressure-type  (plier)  gap  tools,  if  improperly  used,  impose  a tremendously high unit pressure on the center electrode (Fig. 16).  This  is  because  of  compression  being  exerted  between the end of the center electrode and the top of the shell.  If too much   force   is   applied   through   leverage   multiplication,   the center  electrode  seal  on  any  type  or  brand  of  spark  plug  is likely to be damaged.  The conventional type gap tool, which should   only   contact   the   ground   electrode,   is   less   likely   to damage the plug. Fig.  16  Damage to Spark Plug from Pressure (Plier) Type Gap Tools Condition of Electrodes The extent of service and mileage to which a spark plug has been  subjected  is  generally  best  indicated  by  the  degree  of wear of the electrodes, Fig.  17.  When the center electrode CTS-2016-J  Page 6 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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