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Fig.  4  Normal Spark Plug Appearance
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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Fig.  12  Sustained Preignition Damage
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ELECTRICAL Fig.  8  Effects of Turbulence Burning Wet Fouling Wet  fouling,shown  in  Fig.    9,  illustrates  that  the  plug has  drowned  in  excess  oil.    In  an  old  engine,  suspect  worn rings  or  excessive  cylinder  wear.    In  OHV  engines  too  much oil may be coming in past the valve guides.  Also, depending on   cylinder   location,   this   fouling   can   suggest   a   leaking vacuum booster pump diaphragm.  Use of a hotter plug may relieve such fouling, but plugs can't take the place of needed engine overhaul.  Remember that plug fouling in new engines may  occur  before  normal  oil  control  is  achieved.    In  new  or recently overhauled engines such fouled plugs can be cleaned and reinstalled. Fig.  9  Wet Fouling Silica Deposits Silica deposits, illustrated in Fig.  10, are hard and scratchy. This  material  is  largely  lead  silicate  formed  when  fine  sand particles (silicate) combine with the anti-knock compounds in the fuel.  It's most common in trucks operating in dusty areas or in sand loading operations.  Such plugs cannot be cleaned. Always  check  for  intake  manifold  leaks  and  see  that  the  air cleaner on the engine is in good condition. Fig.  10  Silica Deposits Fuel Scavenger Deposits Fuel  scavenger  deposits  shown  in  Fig.    11  may  be white or yellow in color.  They may appear to be bad, but this is   a   normal   appearance   with   certain   brand   fuels.      Such materials   are   designed   to   change   the   chemical   nature   of deposits to lessen misfire tendencies. Notice that accumulation on the ground electrode and shell areas may be unusually  heavy,  but  the  material  is  easily  flaked  off.    Such plugs   can   be   considered   normal   in   condition   and   can   be cleaned with standard procedures. Fig.  11  Fuel Scavenger Deposits Sustained Preignition Damage Sustained  preignition  damage,  illustrated  in  Fig.    12, usually  involves  melting  of  the  ceramic  firing  tip.    Since  this requires temperatures about 2700°F, other components of the engine may also have been damaged by preignition.  This is another sure sign that a careful inspection of the engine and its adjust ments is required. CTS-2016-J  Page 5 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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