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REMOVAL - TM-5-4210-230-14P-1_610
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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Fig.  8  Effects of Turbulence Burning
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 ELECTRICAL Normal Conditions Normal  conditions  are  shown  in  Fig.    4.    The  plug shown  has  been  running  at  the  correct  temperature.    The deposits  present  will  be  light  tan  or  gray  in  color  with  most regular  grades  of  commercial  gasoline;  if  LPG  is  used,  the color will be predominately brown. Fig.  4  Normal Spark Plug Appearance Core Bridging Core bridging, Fig.  5, will be encountered only rarely in automotive   engines.      Deposits   accumulated   after   a   long period  of  misfiring  may  be  suddenly  loosened  when  normal combustion   temperatures   are   restored   upon   installing   new spark    plugs.        During    a    high-speed    run    these    materials shedding  off  the  piston  are  thrown  against  the  hot  insulator surface. Fig.  5  Core Bridging This  action  forms  a  bridge  between  the  insulator  and shell, resulting in a "dead short."  Such evidence of excessive combustion chamber deposits will be most common where oil control  is  poor  or  where  vehicles  are  usually  driven  in  slow speed, start-stop service.  In such instances it usually pays to physically remove accumulated deposits from the engine. Cold Fouling Cold fouling or carbon deposits are illustrated in Fig.  6. This dry, black appearance usually means that the next hotter plug should be substituted.  However, if only one or two plugs in  a  set  are  fouled,  check  for  sticking  valves  or  bad  ignition leads.  Fouling of the  entire set may be caused by a clogged air cleaner, a sticking heat riser or a faulty choke. Fig.  6  Cold Fouling Overheating Overheating,  illustrated  in  Fig.    7,  is  indicated  by  a dead   white   or   gray   insulator   which   appears   "blistered.      " Electrode gap will be considerably worn.  This suggests that a cooler  heat  range  should  be  used;  however,  overadvanced ignition timing, detonation and cooling system stoppages can also overheat the correct spark plug heat ranges. Fig.  7  Overheating Turbulence Burning Turbulence     burning,     shown     in     Fig.          8,     causes electrodes  to  wear  away  on  one  side.    This  is  the  result  of normal  turbulence  patterns  in  the  combustion  chambers  of certain engines.  It can be ignored if normal plug life is being obtained.      If   gap   growth   appears   excessive,   review   the corrective measures suggested under "Overheating." CTS-2016-J  Page 4 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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