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CHAPTER II OPERATION
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TM-5-4210-230-14P-1 Aerial Ladder Fire Fighting Truck Manual
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POWER CYLINDER
TRUCK SERVICE MANUAL TM 5-4210-230-14&P-1 MASTER CYLINDER The    combination    or    compensating    type    master cylinder   (Fig.      1)   consists   of   a   barrel   and   tank   casting, residual  check  valve  (L),  piston  cup  return  spring  (I),  piston cup (D), piston (B), piston stop (P), boot (G) and push rod (A). Fig. 1.  Typical Master Cylinder The  fluid  reservoir  or  supply  tank  is  cast  integrally over   the   master   cylinder   barrel.      A   combination   filler   and breather    plug    (N)    permits    atmospheric    pressure    on    the reserve fluid at all times. Depression  of  the  pedal  causes  piston  (B)  and  cup (D)   to   move   forward   in   the   cylinder   barrel.      A   very   small forward  movement  of  cup  (D)  closes  compensating  port  (C) and the pressure stroke commences. Minimal  pressure  is  built  up  until  the  fluid  displaced has  caused  all  shoes  to  go  into  contact  with  their  drums. Additional  pressure  on  the  pedal  produces  higher  hydraulic pressure within the brake system. Removal of the operator's foot from the brake pedal after each brake application permits the brake pedal and push rod (A) to return independently to their off position. The return of piston (B) and cup (D) is accomplished by the piston return spring (I). The piston for this type of unit is designed to carry a primary cup (D) and a secondary cup (E).  The construction of the piston is such that reserve   fluid   from   the   tank   passes   through   vent   (R)   in   a recessed  area.    Thus,  we  have  fluid  on  both  sides  of  the primary   cup.      The   secondary   cup   (E)   is   merely   a   seal   to prevent loss of reserve fluid into boot (G). The  primary  compensating  function  is  to  maintain  a constant volume of fluid in the system at all times, regardless of   expansion   (heat)   or   contraction   (cold).      The   secondary compensating  function  is  the  replacement  of  additional  fluid into  the  system  to  counterbalance  any  loss  due  to  gravity seepage. The return of piston (B) and cup (D) can be faster in displaced volume than the return of the fluid through fitting (J) into the master cylinder.  A momentary vacuum is created in the   cylinder   barrel   and   additional   fluid   is   drawn   into   the system through the drilled holes in piston (B) and past the lip of cup (D).  The operating fluid returns more slowly from the wheel cylinders and lines back into the master cylinder barrel. Any excess is bypassed by port (C) into the reservoir.  Thus, we have a cylinder full of fluid for the next brake application. Fig.    2  illustrates  a  master  cylinder  equipped  with  a bleeder valve located in the cylinder barrel.  This bleeder valve is  commonly  used  in  the  larger  stroke  master  cylinders.    Its purpose  is  for  expelling  any  air  that  may  be  trapped  in  the upper head end of the cylinder barrel. Fig. 2.  Typical Master Cylinder with Bleeder Valve CTS-2055S  Chapter II Page 3 PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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