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Section XXII.  MAINTENANCE OF TIRE RIM ASSEMBLY
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TM-5-4210-229-14P Truck Firefiighting 1000 GPM Multipurpose Model 2500L Manual
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FRONT ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATIONS - TM-5-4210-229-14P_283
TM5-4210-229-14&P 4-162.  TIRE RIM ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT (Continued). ALIGNMENT a.  Check caster angle. (1)    With  the  vehicle  on  a  smooth,    level  surface,  frame angle should be measured with a bubble protractor (3) placed on the frame rail.  The degree of tilt from the level frame position (4) is the angle that must be used in  determining  a  correcting  caster  setting.    Positive frame  angle  (5)  is  defined  as  forward  tilt  (front  end down)  and  negative  angle  as  tilt  to  rear  (front  end high). (2)    The    measured    frame    angle    should    be    added    or subtracted,      as   required,      from   the   specified   level frame  caster  setting  to  obtain  the  caster  that  should actually be measured on vehicle. (a)    Positive  frame  angle  should  be  subtracted  from specified setting. (b)  Negative  frame  angle  should  be  added  to  specified setting. NOTE As an example,  if the specified caster setting is a positive 1° / and it is found that the vehicle has a positive   1°   /   frame   angle,   then   the   measured caster should be 0±1/2°.  This would result in the desired  1°  /±1/2°  caster  angle  when  the  chassis settled to level frame under load. (3)  Caster  adjustment  is  made  by  inserting  a  wedge  (6) between the spring and axle. (a)    To  increase  caster,    insert  the  wedge  so  the  thick parts face the rear of the truck. (b)  To  decrease  caster,    place  the  wedge  so  that  the thick end is toward the front of the truck. If  an  excessively  thick  wedge  is  required  for  a truck  that  has  high  mileage,    check  the  contour of the springs and replace springs if necessary. b.  Check camber angle (7). (1)  Camber  is  the  amount  in  degrees  that  the  wheel inclines   away   from   the   vertical   at   the   top,      as viewed from the front of the truck. (a)  Positive camber is an outward tilt or inclination of the wheel at the top. (b)  Negative or reverse camber is an inward tilt of the wheel at the top. (2)    An  incorrect  camber  angle  causes  the  side  of  the tread to wear,  resulting in abnormal tire wear. (3)  Unequal camber in  the  front wheels will cause the truck to lead to the right or left.  The truck will lead to the side which has the most positive camber. 4-176

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